MLA Format Resources

AAU Research Guide

Please see this guide for:

  • Information on citing information ethically
  • Instructions for writing an annotated bibliography
  • Chicago and American Psychological Association (APA) citation styles

MLA Formatting and Style Guide (from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab) MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

Tutorial Videos: Cite Your Sources in MLA 8 Format

MLA 8 Works Cited Examples

MLA has updated its rules for creating works-cited lists to reflect the recent changes in how works are published and consulted in the age of digital publication. Below, we have listed examples in the new MLA style for some of the most common formats. To find out more about the changes and to view a more extensive list of examples, please see the excellent MLA Formatting and Style Guide, published by Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL).

Jump to Citation Example:

Material Type

Citation Format and Example

Book

Format:

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Year.

Example - One Author:

Bleicher, Steven. Contemporary Color Theory & Use. Delmar, 2012.

When a book has two authors, order the authors in the same way they are presented in the book. The first given name appears in last name, first name format; second author’s name appears in first name last name format.

Example - Two Authors:

Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. Star Trek Chronology: The History of the Future. Pocket, 1993.

If there are three or more authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase “et al.” in place of the subsequent authors' names.

Example - Three or More Authors:

Burtenshaw, Ken, et al. Fundamentals of Creative Advertising: An Introduction to Branding. AVA Publishing, 2006.

If there is an editor, cite the book as you normally would, but add the editor after the title with the label, "Edited by".

Example - A Book Prepared By an Editor:

Blanc-Hoàng, Henri S., et al. Comics as History, Comics as Literature: Roles of the Comic Book in Scholarship, Society, and Entertainment. Edited by Annessa Ann Babic, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2013.

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Electronic Book (eBook)

In MLA 8th Edition, there are three possible ways to cite an eBook.
1) If the eBook you accessed has a URL or DOI, cite the book just like you would if it were in print. Then add the name of the database or website you used to access the online book, and add a URL or other location indicator at the end of the citation.

Format:

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Year. Database name, URL/DOI.

Example - eBook with URL/DOI:

Wright, Steve. Digital Compositing for Film and Video. Focal Press, 2013. Proquest Ebrary, 0-site.ebrary.com.library.academyart.edu/lib/academyart/detail.action?docID=10399317

2) If the eBook lacks a URL—i.e. books read on a personal device or computer requiring specific software (e.g., Kindle, EPUB) — use following format.

Format:

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. E-reader type, Publisher, Publication Year.

Example - eBook with No URL, Software/eReader Known:

Dunn, Barbara. More Than a Song: Exploring the Healing Art of Music Therapy. Kindle ed., University Book Store Press, 2015.

3) If the eBook lacks a URL and the personal device or software is unknown, the format is the same as above, however, use “e-book” instead of Kindle, EPUB, etc.

Example - eBook with No URL, Software/eReader Unknown

Dunn, Barbara. More Than a Song: Exploring the Healing Art of Music Therapy. e-book, University Book Store Press, 2015.

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Illustrated Book

For a volume in which illustrations supplement the written text, such as an illustrated edition of a literary work, give the illustrator’s name, preceded by “Illustrated by”, after the title. If another contributor (e.g., an editor or a translator) is also cited after the title, place the names in the order in which they appear on the title page.

Format:

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Illustrator’s First and Last Name, Publisher, Publication Year.

Example:

Snyder, Laurel. Swan: The Life and Dance of Anna Pavlova. Illustrated by Julie Morstad, Chronicle Books, 2015.

If you refer mainly to the illustrator's work instead of the author's in your research, begin the entry in the works-cited list with the illustrator's name, followed by "illustrator", and give the author's name, preceded by the word By, after the title.

Example - Mainly Referring to Illustrator's Work:

Tenniel, John, illustrator. Alice Through the Looking-Glass. By Lewis Carroll. Academy Editions, 1977.

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Graphic Novel

In a graphic novel, text and illustrations are intermingled. The entry in the works-cited list for a graphic novel entirely created by one person follows the same format as any other non-periodical print publication.

Format:

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Year.

Example:

Barry, Lynda. What It Is. Drawn & Quarterly, 2008.

If the graphic novel is part of a multi-volume work, include the volume number after the work's title, or after the work's editor, illustrator, or translator.

If the graphic novel is part of a multi-volume work, you may add information about the series following the medium of publication.

Example - Multivolume Work:

Fialkov, Joshua H. The Bunker. Illustrated by Joe Infurnari, vol. 2, Oni Press, 2015.

If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication.

Example - Multivolume Work, Each Volume with Its Own Title:

Miller, Frank. Just Another Saturday Night. Dark Horse Books, 2005.

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Encyclopedia Article:

Format:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of article." Encyclopedia Name. Editor's First Name Last Name, edition., volume, Publisher, Publication Year.

Example:

Kemp, Martin. "Science and art." The Dictionary of Art. Edited by Jane Turner, 1st ed., vol. 28, Grove Dictionaries, 1996.

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Scholarly Journal Article (Print):

Format:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, volume, number, Year, pages.

Example:

Solomon, Jonathan D. "Learning from Louis Vuitton." Journal of Architectural Education, vol. 63, no. 2, 2010, pp. 67-70.

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Magazine Article:

Format:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, volume, number, Day Month Year, pages.

Example:

Hunter, Becky H. “Rodney McMillian: Waging an Artist’s War.” Sculpture, vol. 36, no. 1, Jan-Feb 2017, pp. 20-27.

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Newspaper Article:

Similar to the way a print magazine is cited, however notice the difference in pagination.

Format:

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, page.

Example:

Di Rado, Alicia. "Trekking through College: Classes Explore Modern Society Using the World of Star Trek." Los Angeles Times, 15 Mar. 1995, p. A3.

If the newspaper is a local publication or is lesser known, include the city name in brackets after the title of the newspaper.

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Cartoon or
Comic Strip:

Format:

Artist’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of cartoon or comic strip (if any).” Title of Newspaper or Magazine, Date of Publication, page number.

Example - Cartoon with No Title:

Gross, Sam. Cartoon. New Yorker, 23 May 2011, p. 28.

Example - Comic Strip with Title:

McDonnell, Patrick. “Mutts.” San Francisco Chronicle, 25 June 2011, p. E7.

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Article from an Online Database:

Format:

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal or Magazine, vol., issue, Publication Date, pages. Title of Database, DOI or URL. Date of access (optional).

URLs are now a required component of a citation. Providing the date of access is optional.

Example - Article from Academic Search Premier:

McCarthy, Erin. “10 Scenes That Changed Movie History.” Popular Mechanics, vol. 184, no. 1, Jan. 2007, pp. 64-65. Academic Search Premier, 0-search.ebscohost.com.library.academyart.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=24623655&site=ehost-live. Accessed 23 Feb. 2016.

Example - Art & Architecture Source:

Jays, David. “First Love, Last Rites.” Sight & Sound, vol. 25, no. 9, Sep. 2015, pp. 34-38. Art & Architecture Source, 0-search.ebscohost.com.library.academyart.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=asu&AN=108848832&site=ehost-live. Accessed 17 Jan. 2017.

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Website:

Format:

Author or Editor’s Last name, First Name. “Title of Article or Page.” Name of Website. Version number, Name of Institution/Organization Affiliated with the Site (if different from the title of the website), date that the page/article/post was written (if available), URL. Date of access (optional)..

URLs are now a required component of a citation. Providing the date of access is optional.

Example - Article or Page On a Website with a Known Author:

Gross, Doug. “It’s Social Media Day – Again!” CNN.com, 30 June 2011, www.cnn.com/2011/TECH/social.media/06/30/social.media.day/. Accessed 23 Dec. 2016.

Example - Article or Page on a Website with a Corporate Author:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor. “Drafters.” Occupational Outlook Handbook, 17 Dec. 2015, www.bls.gov/ooh/architecture-and-engineering/drafters.htm. Accessed 31 Dec. 2016.

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Image from a Printed Source:

Format:

Artist’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Artwork. Date Artwork Created, Name of Institution or Private Collection Housing Artwork, City Where it is Housed. Title of Print Resource, Author or Editor Name, Publisher, year, page or plate number.

Example - Artwork Housed In a Private Collection:

Eakins, Thomas. Spinning. 1881. Private Collection. Thomas Eakins, edited by Darrel Sewell, Philadelphia Museum of Art in association with Yale UP, 2001, pl. 91.

Example - Artwork Housed In a Private Collection

Kahlo, Frida. The Two Fridas. 1939. Museo de Art Moderno, Mexico City. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective. 12th ed., edited by Fred S. Kleiner and Christin J. Mamiya, Thomson Wadsworth, 2006, p. 774.

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Digital Image from
the Internet or
Online Database:

Format:

Artist’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Artwork. Date Artwork Created, Name of Institution or Private Collection Housing Artwork, City Where Artwork is Housed. Name of Website, URL or DOI. Date of Access (optional)..

URLs are now a required component of a citation. Providing the date of access is optional.

Example - Image from an Online Database:

Braun, Adolphe. Flower Study, Rose of Sharon. c. 1854. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Grove Art Online, 0-www.oxfordartonline.com.library.academyart.edu/subscriber/article/img/grove/art/F019413. Accessed 10 Jan. 2017.

If the work is found only online, provide the name of the artist, title of the work, and then citation information for the website that it was found on. If no author is present, use the username that posted the image as the author.

Example - Image Found Only Online:

Cloix, Emmanuel. BROUSSAI 2 visu. 2007. Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BROUSSAI_2_visu.jpg. Accessed 1 June 2011.

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Film, Video, or YouTube

Format:

Title of Film or Video. Name of Director, Film Studio or Distributor, and the Release Year.

You may include other data that seems pertinent such as names of the screenwriter, performers, and producer after the name of the director. For films dubbed or subtitled in English, you may give the English title and follow it with the original title, italicized, in square brackets.

The format (film, DVD, VHS, etc.) on which the work was viewed is no longer included.

Example - Film, Video, DVD, VHS, etc.:

It's a Wonderful Life. Directed by Frank Capra, performances by James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell, RKO, 1946.

For audio and video content found online, include descriptive information to help readers understand the type of source you are citing. If the author and the uploader are the same, only cite once. If they are different, place the author’s name before the title.

Example - YouTube, Vimeo, etc:

“Academy of Art University April 2009 Fashion Show.” YouTube, uploaded by Academy of Art University, 29 June 2011, www.youtube.com/watch?v=bUFar8VwJXY.

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