MLA Citation Guide

MLA Format Resources

MLA Formatting and Style Guide (from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab) MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

Works Cited Examples

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Material Type

Citation Format and Example

Book

Format:

Author's last name, first name. Title of book. Publication city: Publisher, year. Medium of publication.

Example - One Author:

Bleicher, Steven. Contemporary Color Theory & Use. New York: Delmar, 2012. Print.

Example - Two Authors:

Okuda, Michael, and Denise Okuda. Star Trek Chronology: The History of the Future. New York: Pocket, 1993. Print.

See Section 5.5 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.
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Electronic Book

Format:

Author's last name, first name. Title of book. Publication city: Publisher, year. Title of database or website. Medium consulted. Date of access.

Example - One Author:

Hirsch, Robert. Light and Lens : Photography in the Digital Age. Burlington, MA: Focal Press, 2007. ebrary collections. Web. 21 June 2011.

Example - Three Authors:

Burtenshaw, Ken, Nik Mahon, and Caroline Barfoot. Fundamentals of Creative Advertising : An Introduction to Branding. London, GBR: AVA Publishing, 2006. ebrary collections. Web. 21 June 2011.

See Sections 5.6.2 and 5.5 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.
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Illustrated Book

Format:

Author’s last name, first name. Title of work. Illustrator’s first name last name. Publication city: Publisher, year. Medium of publication.

For a volume in which illustrations supplement the written text, such as an illustrated edition of a literary work, give the illustrator’s name, preceded by the abbreviation Illus. (“Illustrated by”), after the title. If another contributor (e.g., an editor or a translator) is also cited after the title, place the names in the order in which they appear on the title page.

Example:

Carroll, Lewis. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Illus. Arthur Rackham. Poem by Austin Dobson. New York: Sea Star Books, 2002.

If you refer mainly to the illustrator's work instead of the author's in your research, begin the entry in the works-cited list with the illustrator's name, followed by illus. ("illustrator"), and give the author's name, preceded by the word By, after the title.

Example:

Tenniel, John, illus. Alice Through the Looking-Glass. By Lewis Carroll. Academy Editions: London, 1977. Print.

See Section 5.5.12 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.
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Graphic Novel

Format:

Author’s last name, first name. Title of work. Publication city: Publisher, year. Medium of publication.

In a graphic novel, text and illustrations are intermingled. The entry in the works-cited list for a graphic novel entirely created by one person follows the same format as any other non-periodical print publication.

Example:

Barry, Lynda. What It Is. Montreal: Drawn & Quarterly, 2008. Print.

If the graphic novel is part of a multi-volume work, you may add information about the series following the medium of publication.

Example:

Miller, Frank. Just Another Saturday Night. Milwaukie, OR: Dark Horse Books, 2005. Print. Vol. 6 of Frank Miller’s Sin City: Booze, Broads, & Bullets.

For graphic novels created through collaboration, begin the entry with the name of the person whose contribution is the most relevant to your research, following it with a label identifying the person’s role. List other collaborators after the title in the order in which they appear on the title page, also with labels identifying their roles.

Example:

Pekar, Harvey, writer. The Quitter. Art by Dean Haspiel. Gray tones by Lee Loughridge. Letters by Pat Brosseau. New York: Vertigo-DC Comics, 2005. Print.

See Section 5.5.12 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.
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Encyclopedia Article:

Format:

Author's last name, first name. "Title of article." Encyclopedia name. Editor's first name last name. Volume consulted. Publication city: Publisher, year. Medium of publication.

Example:

Kemp, Martin. "Science and art." The Dictionary of Art. Ed. Jane Turner. Vol. 28. New York: Grove Dictionaries, 1996. Print.

See Section 5.5.7 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.
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Scholarly Journal Article:

Format:

Author's last name, first name. "Title of article." Title of journal Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Medium of publication.

Examples:

Wilcox, Rhonda V. "Shifting Roles and Synthetic Women in Star Trek: The Next Generation." Studies in Popular Culture 13.2 (1991): 53-65. Print.

Solomon, Jonathon D. "Learning from Louis Vuitton." Journal of Architectural Education 63.2 (2010): 67-70. Print.

See Section 5.4 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.
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Newspaper or Magazine Article:

Format:

Author's last name, first name. "Title of article." Title of newspaper or magazine Date of publication: Pages. Medium of publication.

Example:

Di Rado, Alicia. "Trekking through College: Classes Explore Modern Society Using the World of Star Trek." Los Angeles Times 15 Mar. 1995: A3. Print.

See Sections 5.4.5 and 5.4.6 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.
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Cartoon or
Comic Strip:

Format:

Artist’s last name, first name. "Title of cartoon or comic strip (if any)." Descriptive label. Title of newspaper or magazine Date of publication: Pages. Medium of publication.

Example - Cartoon:

Gross, Sam. Cartoon. New Yorker 23 May 2011: 28. Print.

Example - Comic Strip:

McDonnell, Patrick. "Mutts." Comic strip. San Francisco Chronicle 25 June 2011: E7. Print.

See Section 5.7.9 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.
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Article from an Online Database:

Format:

Author’s last name, first name. “Title of article.” Title of journal or magazineVolume.Issue (Year): Pages. Title of database. Medium consulted. Date of access. <URL (optional)>.

URLs are now an optional component of a citation, but it is still recommended to include this information if the reader will not be able to locate a resource without it, or it is part of an instructor’s requirements.

When providing a URL, enclose the complete address in angle brackets following the date of access, period, and a space. End the entire entry with a period after the closing angle bracket:

Example - ProQuest:

McCarthy, Erin. "10 Scenes That Changed Movie History." Popular Mechanics 184.1 (2007): 64. Research Library Core, ProQuest. Web. 23 Feb. 2010.

Example - EBSCO Art Source:

Jays, David. “First Love, Last Rites.” Sight & Sound 17.10 (2007): 34-5. Art Source. Web. 23 Feb. 2010.

See Sections 5.6.3 and 5.6.4 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.
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Website:

Format:

Name of author, editor, director, etc. "Title of work (for a specific article or page)." Title of website. Date of posting/revision. Publisher/sponsor of website. Date of publication. Medium consulted. Date of access. <URL (optional)>.

URLs are now an optional component of a citation, but it is still recommended to include this information if the reader will not be able to locate a resource without it, or it is part of an instructor’s requirements.

When providing a URL, enclose the complete address in angle brackets following the date of access, period, and a space. End the entire entry with a period after the closing angle bracket:

Example - Article or Page:

Gross, Doug. "It's Social Media Day -- again!" CNN.com. Cable News Network, 30 June 2011. Web. 30 June 2011.

Example - Blog Posting:

Vigor, Emily. "The art of Cera Hensly and the AAU Library Photography section." AAU Library Blog. Academy of Art University Library. 16 Mar. 2011. Web. 30 June 2011. <http://elmo.academyart.edu/blog/?p=787>.

See Section 5.6.2 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.
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Image from a Printed Source:

Format for an Image from a Printed Source:

Author/Artist if available. Description or title of image. Type of image (photo, map, cartoon, drawing, etc,). Author of source of image (last name, first name). Title of source of image. Publication city of source of image: Publisher's name of source of image, publication year of source of image, page number of source of image.

Digital Image from a Printed Source Example:

Berryman, Liz. Market in Lijiang. Photograph. Ferroa, Peggy. China. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2002, 37.

Format:

Artist’s last name, first name. Title of artwork. Year. Name of institution/private collection housing artwork. Title of print source. Author/editor’s first name last name. Publication city: Publisher, year. Page/plate number. Medium of reproduction.

Examples:

Eakins, Thomas. Spinning. 1881. Private collection. Thomas Eakins. Ed. Darrel Sewell. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art in assn. with Yale UP, 2001. Plate 91. Print.

Kahlo, Frida. The Two Fridas. 1939. Museo de Art Moderno, Mexico City. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective. 12th ed. Ed. Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya. Vol. 2. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth, 2006. 774. Print.

View this Image Citation Guide (PDF) for more information on citing images.

See Section 5.7.6 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.
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Digital Image from
the Internet or
Online Database:

Format:

Artist’s last name, first name. Title of artwork. Year. Name of institution/private collection housing artwork. Title of database or website. Publisher/sponsor of database or website. Medium consulted. Date of access. <URL (optional)>.

Note about publisher/sponsor: When known, include if it is not related to the housing institution/collection; is a parent entity of the database or website; or offers the source in additional formats.

URLs are now an optional component of a citation, but it is still recommended to include this information if the reader will not be able to locate a resource without it, or it is part of an instructor’s requirements.

When providing a URL, enclose the complete address in angle brackets following the date of access, period, and a space. End the entire entry with a period after the closing angle bracket:

Examples without URL:

Braun, Adolphe. Flower Study, Rose of Sharon. c. 1854. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 2 June 2011.

Eggleston, William. Memphis. c. 1969. Museum of Mod. Art. Academy of Art University Collection, LUNA. Academy of Art University. Web. 27 Apr. 2011.

Example with URL:

Cloix, Emmanuel. BROUSSAI 2 visu. 2007. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 1 June 2011. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BROUSSAI_2_visu.jpg> .

View this Image Citation Guide (PDF) for more information on citing images.

See Sections 5.6.1, 5.6.2, and 5.7.6 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.
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Films or Videos

Format:

Title of film or video. Film studio or distributor, Release year. Format.

You may include other data that seem pertinent such as names of the screenwriter, director (use the abbreviation Dir.) performers (use the abbreviation Perf.), and producer between the title and the distributor. For films dubbed or subtitled in English, you may give the English title and follow it with the original title, italicized, in square brackets.

Format should be the format you viewed, for example Film, DVD, or VHS.

Example - Film:

It’s a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. RKO, 1946. Film.

Example - DVD:

Rebel Without a Cause. Dir. Nicholas Ray. Perf. James Dean, Natalie Wood, Sal Mineo, and Jim Backus. 1955. Warner Home Video, 2005. DVD.

Example - DVD with original title:

Pan’s Labyrinth [El laberinto del fauno]. Dir. Guillermo del Toro. Perf. Ariadna Gil, Ivana Baquero, Sergi López, Maribel Verdú, and Doug Jones. 2006. New Line Home Entertainment, 2007. DVD.

Example - YouTube Video:

"Academy of Art University April 2009 Fashion Show." YouTube, 2009. Web. 29 June 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bUFar8VwJXY&feature=channel_video_title>.

See Sections 5.7.3 and 5.6.2d of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.
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